Archive for January, 2011

Goal Seek feature in Microsoft Office Excel is used to find out the correct input value to a formula in order to get a desired formula result. This video shows how to use the Goal Seek feature to calculate loan period for a given monthly payment amount and interest rate.

A PivotTable report is an interactive way to quickly summarize large amounts of data. In this video I will show you how to create a summary report using PivotTable in Microsoft Office Excel 2010.

Increased complexity in contemporary projects puts a heavy burden on the project management profession. Project Managers do no longer have the luxury to be task-oriented only; they need to evolve into Project Leaders in order to bring success to their projects. Accelerating business, environmental, economic, and political changes necessitate the invisible force of running projects, namely leadership, to emerge and save organizations.

A cook lacking the skill to mix the right amounts of ingredients will produce distasteful food even if she has all needed ingredients and cooking tools. And a football team’s couch will drive his team out of a tournament if he does not integrate players’ skills to create the harmony required in the field. Not far from that is the failure project manager whose sole job is to complete project deliverables within given time, scope, cost, and resources without envisioning the project, communicating vision to the team, integrating efforts and removing roadblocks to accomplish the vision.

Effective project leadership has two main concerns; team needs, and project requirements. A successful project leader is one who creates the balance between both concerns and moves forward in achieving project vision. Concern about team needs encompasses understanding each member’s personal and professional aspirations and helping him/her achieve them in line with the project vision. Starting with clear assignment of roles and responsibilities, to assessing member’s abilities and providing required training to accomplish the job, to fully comprehending team evolution dynamics comprise the road map a project leader should adopt to develop the ‘team side’ of her leadership skill. On the other hand, managing project requirements is what brings deliverables to existence. Analyzing stakeholders’ needs, scoping project, managing cost and time constraints, foreseeing risks, creating key performance indicators and monitoring them are the primary tasks a project manager is hired to perform.

Balancing people side and task side is essential to implement a successful project. Excessive concern about team’s needs will not produce deliverables within given constraints by stakeholders, and, on the other hand, neglecting people’s needs while focusing on tasks will demoralize members, tear team apart, and result in a failure project. The right mixture of people and task orientation is what effective leadership brings to project management.

Effective communication remains number one skill a project leader should possess to influence her team and project tasks towards vision fulfillment. Creating a project vision is the beginning of a story that concludes only when vision is clearly communicated, understood, adopted, and accomplished by project team. Although not all team members are required to agree with the vision since it might be impossible, each member must understand the vision and commit to it. Continuous monitoring and controlling to the vision is critical to success. Project leader should keep any eye on vision completion progress and its alignment with stakeholders’ needs and organizational strategy. She should act proactively to adjust vision when strategy and circumstances necessitate that. This can only be achieved by an effective communication plan.

Creating a sense of team accountability is another vital aspect of project leadership. A leader should clearly communicate expectations of members, develop a practical measurement system to evaluate performance, give the team the ability to assess themselves against expectations, and finally develop awards and sanctions limits. Establishing accountability is a hard job to perform by the leader as it requires assessing the current abilities of the team and raising them to perform up to expectations then rewarding or sanctioning members upon evaluation. This all should be done rightly otherwise accountability will incur harmful consequences. If low performers are sanctioned for out of-control factors, resentment will develop and commitment will fall. Similarly, if high-performers are rewarded for out-of-control factors, favoritism will develop and negative conflicts will surface.

Understanding team dynamics and developing the team from individualism to team spirit is the first and foremost priority on the people side of project leadership. Most often team is comprised of members with diverse backgrounds, attitudes, and hidden agendas which make up the recipe of conflicts in projects. Hence, conflicts are inevitable, and project leader should exploit such conflicts to the betterment of the project. Naturally, members cannot evolve to the performing stage immediately. A leader should understand and help the team pass from Forming to Storming to Norming until it reaches the Performing stage in which the team experiences real cohesion and start focusing its efforts to complete project tasks.

By this every project manager needs to explore this invisible critical success factor and assess oneself against various leadership aspects whose absence could doom the project to fail. So, are you people-oriented, task-oriented, or do you create a balance between both? Bring this hidden power to surface and move forward to accomplish your vision.

“Would you please help me print out this ‘WBS’? It won’t fit in one page. I have a status meeting with the Sponsor in 30 minutes!” a colleague of mine approached me and asked. “This is not a WBS! It is a Schedule in a form of hierarchal structure.” I said sarcastically when I saw her WBS. She listed all project deliverables, and listed all activities below each one. This is not what a WBS is intended to be used for. Does your sponsor or client need to know how you’re going to complete each deliverable? Do you really need to present a 100+ boxes on your WBS to get your sponsor agree on what’s included and what’s excluded in your project scope? Absolutely not.

The primary benefits of having a WBS in any successful project dictate the need to keep it simple. Firstly, a WBS depicts the boundaries of project scope. A client or a sponsor can easily sign off a well-structured WBS as it includes all project scope and excludes whatever out of scope. Secondly, it ensures that effort is not wasted on unnecessary or out-of-scope deliverables. That is, if the WBS lists a redundant Work Package, this would require extra resources, time, and cost. Finally, a good WBS can be used on a project dashboard to communicate scope (changes) without confusing stakeholders with scores of activities needed to complete deliverables. The latter point is actually the key to build a good WBS. A WBS does not include activities; it only lists deliverables down to the Work Package level. Leave listing activities to the Project Schedule. WBS is composed of tangible deliverables without activities whereas a Schedule describes all activities required to complete those deliverables outlined in the WBS.

From another perspective, a WBS represents the project lifecycle that is different from the PM Process Groups. WBS is not used to chart Initiating, Planning, Executing, Monitoring & Controlling, and Closing of a project. These are process groups that describe how you manage a project from start to end but not what the project includes and what it excludes (scope). On the other hand, a project lifecycle describes the phases into which a project evolves to complete each of the agreed upon deliverables. Hence, one of the most commonly-used WBS’s is breaking down the project into phases, deliverables, sub-deliverables, and Work Packages that collectively constitutes the overall scope of the project.

If WBS represents the lifecycle, how should PM processes be represented as part of the project effort? Project Management is actually a phase in the WBS that has its own deliverables, sub-deliverables, and Work Packages. Taking a software development project as an example, the WBS shown in figure (1) is what is expected to represent the lifecycle and scope of the project (WBS in its initial structure for illustration purposes). 

Figure (1)-Software Development WBS

As shown in figure (1) the Analysis phase of the project consists of two deliverables: Glossary, and Requirements Specifications. The SRS deliverable consists of three sub-deliverables: Use Cases, Supplementary Specifications, and Reporting Requirements. The sub-deliverables can be broken down further into Work Packages (components that can be estimated for required time, resources, and cost). Use Cases, for instance, can be broken down into more specific use cases discussed with customer or user of the system under development.

Although WBS is progressively elaborated (built in increments as project progresses) a PM should make sure her WBS is complete and constitutes 100% of the agreed scope. All phases should make up the 100% completeness of the project. And all child deliverables under each phase should make up 100% of the parent phase, and so on. This is one way to ensure a WBS, so scope, completeness.

After a WBS is structured correctly, a project schedule can be established. From each deliverable or Work Package in the WBS PM with her team members can list the required activities to build each component. Time, resources, and cost are then allocated to each activity of the component after which a project schedule (e.g. MS Project Plan) is generated and schedule baseline is then set.